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Chapter 5 footnotes

1 This figure is quoted by Paul Hawken in The Ecology of Commerce (Harper-Collins: New York 1993), citing the Rocky Mountain Institute as the source. A letter to the RMI produced a copy of its Community Energy Workbook and a compliments slip but nothing to indicate which of its studies produced this finding. However, Paul Harwood's report A Domestic Energy Audit of Newport, Pembrokeshire showed that in 1996 the average household in this small town was causing an 'energy cash leakage' of £747 out of its local economy for its cooking, heating and light and that this could readily be cut by two-thirds. This sum, of course, ignored the cost of the energy required to run the community's vehicles and the vaule of the energy used to make the products its members bought. As roughly 27 per cent of all energy is used in the home for cooking, lighting and space-heating and the rest is bought by households either directly at the petrol pump ot indirectly through their purchases and taxes, this would mean that each household spent £2700 on energy a year in 1996. As the average after-tax household income that year was £192.32 a week or £10,000 a year, this makes the figure of a fifth look reasonable.    Back to main text

2  BP Statistical Review of World Energy, June 1993   Back to main text

3 A small gas field, Ballycotton, was discovered in 1990, but no more recent finds have been reported.   Back to main text

4  Hatherleigh Community Renewable Energy Study (draft final report 1995), Terence O'Rourke PLC, Everdene House, Wessex Fields, Deansleigh Road, Bournemouth BH7 7DU; tel +44 1202 421142; fax +441202 430055.  Back to main text

5 Available from NATTA, c/o Energy & Environment Research Unit, Faculty of Technology, Open University, Walton Hall, Milton Keynes, Buckinghamshire MK7 6AA; tel +44 1908 654638; fax (Dave Elliott) +44 1908 653052.  Back to main text

6  Small-Scale Hydro-Electric Potential of Ireland(Department of Energy, Dublin)  Back to main text

7 IHPA, 13 Marlborough Road, Dublin 4; tel & fax +353 1 6680043.  Back to main text

8 P. Fraenkel, O. Paish, V. Bokalders, A. Harvey, A. Brown, and R. Edwards, Micro-Hydro Power: A Guide for Development Workers (Intermediate Technology Publications: London 1991). Another guide that is particularly strong on the preliminary assessment of a site's potential is The Development of Small-Scale Hydro-Schemes, Part 2 (Department of Energy, Dublin, n.d.)  Back to main text

9 Polyturbine Ltd., Unit 16, IDA Enterprise Centre, 111 Pearse Street, Dublin 2; Tel +353 1 6711209; fax +353 1 6711746. The Polyturbine can be described as a single-regulated Kaplan because the propeller blades are not adjustable when the machine is in operation as they are in the double-regulated variety. This means that it produces slightly less power from a given flow of water but at a significantly lower capital cost.   Back to main text

10 The Rock, South Brent, Devon TQ10 9JL; tel +44 1364 72185. The NAWPU can supply a list of consultants, manufacturers, lawyers and others who may be useful to anyone developing a water-power site in Britain. It lobbies on behalf of small hydro-electricity producers and publishes a bulletin twice a year. Membership is £20 annually.   Back to main text

11 Irish Wind Energy Association, Arigna, Co. Roscommon; tel +353 78 46072; e-mail  Back to main text

12 Her report is called Living with Wind Farms in Denmark and the Netherlands and is available from North Energy Associates, 2 Old Bakehouse Yard, Morpeth, Northumberland NE1 1AS; tel +44 1670 516949.  Back to main text

13 Hurley Staudt Associates, 63 Greenlawns, Skerries, Co. Dublin; tel +353 1 8490396.  Back to main text

14 The 656-page handbook covers regional wind resource assessment and the local siting of turbines and explains how to correct calculations for the effects of rough terrain etc. It is accompanied by a diskette containing wind statistics. It costs 875 Danish Kroner from the Department of Meteorology and Wind Energy, Risø National Laboratory, PO Box 49, 4000 Roskilde; tel +45 42371212; fax +45 46755619. Risø also publishes in extensive list of free research reports in English on wind energy.  Back to main text

15 The report (ref. ETSU K/FR/00082/REP) is available from ETSU, Harwell, Oxfordshie OX11 0RA; tel +44 1235 432450; fax +44 1235 432923.  Back to main text

16 Inishowen Renewable Energy Study; Wind and Biomass in North-West Ireland (1994), Inishowen Energy Co-op, Colpey, Muff, Co. Donegal.  Back to main text

17 L.P. Martindale, The Potential for Straw as a Fuel in the UK (ref NI/84), ETSU, Harwell, Oxfordshire.  Back to main text

18 See 'Straw as a Fuel: Current Developments in the UK', ETSU Technology Summary, 073, June 1991.  Back to main text

19 The paper, Bioenergy in Denmark, is available from Dr Boldt at the Danish Energy Agency, 11 Lander mærket, 1119 København K; tel. +45 33926700; fax +45 33114743.  Back to main text

20 Update on Centralised Biogas Plants, October 1992.  Back to main text

21 Institute of Agricultural Economics, Gl. Køge Landevej 1, 2500 Valby; tel +45 36442080; fax +45 26441110.  Back to main text

22 F. Culshaw and C. Butler, A Review of Biodiesel as a Transport Fuel (ETSU-R-71) (HMSO: London 1992).  Back to main text

23 W. Dunne, Liquid Fuels from Conventional Agricultural Crops (Teagasc: Dublin 1990).  Back to main text

24 Økobilanz Rapsøl, available from Umweltbundesamt, Bismarckplatz, 1000 Berlin 33.  Back to main text

25 T. Thomas, Fuel Oil Seed Rape   Back to main text

26 'The carbon and energy burdens of energy crops', Energy Conversion Management, vol. 34 (1993), no. 9-11, pp.897-904.  Back to main text

27 'Express Path' Summary Report (CEC Contract no. EV5V_CT92-0086), March 1995. The technologies are biomass use in Austria, Denmark and Greece, wind power in Denmark, and solar heating in Austria and Greece.  Back to main text

28 David Oliver, 'Continental Efficiency', Building Services, March 1991.   Back to main text

29 In 1993 it published a report (ETSU resource study 287) on the future prospects of the renewable energy resources in its supply area, which runs from Avon through Somerset, Devon and Cornwall to the isles of Scilly. This concluded that between 6 and 12 per cent of present electricity consumption could be met from renewable resources by the year 2000 and that nearly two-and-a-half times the present consumption could be supplied in the longer term.  Back to main text

30 Telephone interview, January 1996.  Back to main text

31 Renew, issues 92 and 93.  Back to main text

32 New Scientist, 20 August 1994.  Back to main text

33 20 New Bond Street, London WIY 0RY; tel. +44 171 4954812.  Back to main text

34 David Lascelles, 'More than one way to go', Financial Times, 15 March 1995.  Back to main text

35 Antonio Estevan and Alfonso Sanz, 'Hacia la Reconversion Ecologia del Transporte en España', Centro de investigacion para la Paz, Madrid.  Back to main text

36 Road Transport of Goods and the Effects on the Spatial Environment, July 1993.  Back to main text

37 The most recent British study (September 1995), Reforming Road Taxation,compares the total costs of the road transport system (not just freight transport) with the tax revenue raised from it. It was commissionaed by the Automobile Association from Professor David Newbery, Director of the Department of Applied Economics at the University of Cambridge. It shows that after meeting the cost of repairing the road network and servicing the capital tied up in it, vehicle fuel taxes should be three times higher than at present to cover the costs vehicle users impose on each other, the environment, and the community. This figure is likely to be a serious underestimate because of the low figures used for the contribution of the transport system to the damage likely to be done by global warming, and also for its noise and health effects.   Back to main text

38 Quoted by Wolfgang Zuckermann, End of the Road (Chelsea Green, Vermont 1991).  Back to main text

39 Freewheelers, 25 Low Friar Street, Newcastle-upon Tyne NE! 5UE; tel +44 191 2220090; fax +44 191 2615746.   Back to main text

40 Groningen is called 'the record-holder among cyclists' cities' in a useful, fact-filled report, Greening Urban Transport; European Examples of Pedestrian and Cycling Policy, published in 1994 bu the European Federation for Transport and Environment, Rue de la Victoire 26, 1060 Bruxelles; tel +32 2 5376639; fax +32 2 5377394. The lessons learnt in seventeen other cities in seven countries are presented as well.  Back to main text

41 Material in English available from the Public Relations Office of Groningen City Council (Postbox 7081, 9701 JB Groningen; tel +31 50 672169; fax +31 50 672225) includes Hand on Heart; a New City Centre for Groningen, which describes the measures taken and includes maps and colour pictures, and an illustrated policy statement, An Integrated Town Planning and Traffic Policy, issued in 1992.   Back to main text

42 Details are given by Keith Chivers (ed.), History with a Future: Harnessing the Heavy Horse for the Twenty-First Century (1988), Shire Horse Society, East of England Showground, Peterborough PE2 0XE; tel +44 1733 390696; fax +44 1733 390720.  Back to main text

43 David Roodman and Nicholas Lennsen, A Building Revolution: How Ecology and Health Concerns are Transforming Construction(Worldwatch paper no. 124) (Worldwatch Institute: Washington March 1995).  Back to main text

44 Energy-Efficient Subdivision Design: General Plan Policy Interpretation, July 1992.  Back to main text

45 This is the County Planning Officer's Society, c/o Lancashire County Planning Dept., P.O. Box 160, Eastcliff County offices, Preston, PR1 3EX.  Back to main text

46 Estimate by William Gillis in T. Markus (ed.), Domestic Energy and Affordable Warmth (Watt Committee report no. 30) (Spon: London 1994).  Back to main text

47 The first car-sharing club, Auto Teilet Genossenschaft, Postfach, Mühlenplatz 10, 6000 Luzern; tel +41 41 524655; fax +41 41 529349.  Back to main text

48 AKF, Nyropsgade 37,1602 København; tel +45 33110300; fax +45 33152875. Many of their publications are in English or have English summaries. The American power companies also have considerable experience in getting people to use less electricity, and the Results Center (IRT Environment Inc., PO Box 10990, Aspen, Colorado 81612-9689, USA) collates their results and publishes its findings.   Back to main text

49 Anders Larsen et al., Virkemidler og Elbesparelser (Measures for Savings in Electricity Consumption) (AKF: København n.d.),   Back to main text

50 'Energy saving pays off', Safe Energy Journal, September-November 1995, pp.14-15. Robert Barnham can be contacted at LEEP, 72 Newhaven Road, Edinbirgh EH6 5QG, Scotland tel; tel +44 131 5554010; fax +44 131 5552768.  Back to main text

51 Telephone interview, December 1995.  Back to main text

52 Press release, March 1995.  Back to main text

53 Telephone conversation, 1996. See Olivier's article 'Continental Efficiency', Building Services, March 1991.  Back to main text

54 L. Shorrock, Potential Carbon Emission Savings from Energy Efficiency in Housing (information paper 15/95), Building Research Establishment, December 1995.  Back to main text

Chapter 6: Life from the Land

Short Circuit by Richard Douthwaite: links within this site

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